Evolutionists say that the Moon is 4. Is that correct? Last month we saw that rubidium-strontium isochron dating of the Apollo 11 moon rocks showed that the moon is 4. That method depends upon an unwarranted assumption about the initial concentrations of rubidium and strontium isotopes. This month we want to compare that age with ages other qualified scientists found using other techniques. Scientists computed the age of the Apollo 11 moon rocks times using methods other than rubidium-strontium isochron dating. Of those dates, only 10 of them fall in the range of 4. The non-isochron dates range from 40 million years to 8. When faced with this obvious discrepancy, evolutionists sometimes backpedal by saying that although the radiometric dates may not be perfectly accurate, even 40 million years is much older than 6, years, so the radiometric ages still prove the Earth is old. All of the ages were calculated using baseless assumptions about the initial concentrations of radioactive isotopes and erroneous speculation about how those concentrations changed over time.
STFC Lunar Rocks and Meteorites Loan Scheme: Secondary Resources
Researchers are developing instruments and methods for measuring the ages of rocks encountered during space missions to the Moon or other planets. Many of the techniques used to date rocks on Earth are not practical in spaceflight, but a technique called laser ablation resonance ionization mass spectrometry can avoid the need for sophisticated sample preparation. A team led by Dr. Scott Anderson has now demonstrated that this technique can successfully date an Earth rock — the Duluth Gabbro — that is analogous to the rocks that cover one-third of the lunar nearside.
A highly radioactive rock from the moon’s Ocean of Storms was Dr. Wasserburg, who per formed the dating analysis, made his report in.
Inside a locked vault at Johnson Space Center is treasure few have seen and fewer have touched. The restricted lab is home to hundreds of pounds of moon rocks collected by Apollo astronauts close to a half-century ago. And for the first time in decades, NASA is about to open some of the pristine samples and let geologists take a crack at them with 21st-century technology.
What better way to mark this summer’s 50th anniversary of humanity’s first footsteps on the moon than by sharing a bit of the lunar loot. With the golden anniversary of Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin’s feat fast approaching—their lunar module Eagle landed July 20, , on the Sea of Tranquility—the moon is red-hot again. After decades of flip-flopping between the moon and Mars as the next big astronaut destination, NASA aims to put astronauts on the lunar surface again by at the White House’s direction.
President Donald Trump prefers talking up Mars. But the consensus is that the moon is a crucial proving ground given its relative proximity to home—, miles , kilometers or two to three days away. Zeigler’s job is to preserve what the 12 moonwalkers brought back from through —lunar samples totaling pounds kilograms —and ensure scientists get the best possible samples for study. Some of the soil and bits of rock were vacuum-packed on the moon—and never exposed to Earth’s atmosphere—or frozen or stored in gaseous helium following splashdown and then left untouched.
The lab’s staff is now trying to figure out how best to remove the samples from their tubes and other containers without contaminating or spoiling anything.
Apollo Samples Reveal the Moon Is Millions of Years Older Than We Thought
Moon rock or lunar rock is rock that is found on the Earth’s Moon including lunar material collected during the course of human exploration of the Moon , or rock that has been ejected naturally from the Moon’s surface and which has then landed on the Earth as meteorites. Moon rocks on Earth come from three sources: those collected by the United States Apollo program crewed lunar landings from to ; samples returned by three Soviet Luna programme uncrewed probes in the s; and rocks that were ejected naturally from the lunar surface before falling to Earth as lunar meteorites.
A moon rock known as “NWA ” which weighs The Soviet Union attempted, but failed to make crewed lunar landings in the s, but they succeeded in landing three robotic Luna spacecraft with the capability to collect and return small samples to Earth.
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Radioactive decay is the process whereby an atom decays to form a different element. One of the most commonly used methods for dating rocks on both the Moon and the Earth is the decay of an isotope of potassium K to produce an isotope of argon Ar. Naturally occurring potassium has two stable isotopes and one unstable isotope and in this case, scientists make use of the unstable one that has been slowly decaying through time.
So, what is an isotope? Atoms are made of a cloud of electrons negatively charged particles surrounding a nucleus of protons positively charged particles and neutrons neutral particles. Each element is defined by its atomic number, the number of protons in the nucleus Z. To keep an atom electrically neutral overall, the number of electrons is the same as the number of protons.
However, the number of neutrons N can vary in the atoms of a single element, resulting in atoms of different masses for the same element. The atomic mass A is defined by the number of particles in the nucleus:.
NASA to open moon rock samples sealed since Apollo missions
Nell Greenfieldboyce. Darby Dyar says that as a kid, whenever Apollo astronauts returned from the moon, she and her classmates would get ushered into the school library to watch it on TV. She remembers seeing the space capsules bobbing in the ocean as the astronauts emerged. Nearly a half-ton of moon rocks were collected by the six Apollo missions to the lunar surface. And as the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 first landing mission approaches, NASA has decided to open a still-sealed, never-studied moon rock sample that has been carefully saved for decades, waiting for technology to advance.
Kieran Kesner for NPR hide caption.
How Apollo moon rocks reveal the epic history of the cosmos By age-dating the moon’s craters, we can age-date craters elsewhere.
The Apollo lunar landings yielded an abundance of new scientific data on the Moon. The various experiments placed on the surface provided information on seismic, gravitational, and other lunar characteristics. But perhaps the most dramatic result of the missions was returning a total of more than pounds of lunar rock and soil for analysis on Earth. These samples of the Moon offered a deeper appreciation of the evolution of our nearest planetary neighbor.
Lunar surface basalts are believed to have their origins in partially melted areas kilometers miles beneath the large meteoroid impact basins. The basaltic material welled up into the basins through cracks created by the impacts.
AGE OF THE EARTH
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Radiometric dating of lunar materials is an old and well-studied field. Dozens For Moon rocks, the dates vary between the younger mare material and the older.
A highly radioactive rock from the moon’s Ocean of Storms was reported yesterday to be 4. Scientists called the ouserva tion one of the most exciting and significant findings to be reached in their analysis of the rocks and soil brought back from the moon last year by the Apollo 11 and 12 astronauts. The discovery was particu larly encouraging to scientists who have predicted the moon harbors, in relatively undis turbed condition, materials bearing evidence of the earliest history of the solar system.
All the other rocks from two Apollo flights ranged in age from 3. The 4. Gerald J. Wasserburg of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Its black and white and gray interior resembled granite found on the earth.
Moon Rocks Still Awe, And Scientists Hope To Get Their Hands On More
The following radioactive decay processes have proven particularly useful in radioactive dating for geologic processes:. Note that uranium and uranium give rise to two of the natural radioactive series , but rubidium and potassium do not give rise to series. They each stop with a single daughter product which is stable. Some of the decays which are useful for dating, with their half-lives and decay constants are:.
By Eugenie Samuel. The grain has helped pinpoint the age at which the molten moon solidified. Lunar zircons were not studied at the time of the Apollo missions because the technology to date them did not exist, says geologist Clive Neal of the University of Notre Dame, Indiana. Until now, the zircon found in lunar rocks was between 3. But many of these lunar grains came from low-lying areas on the moon, where the crust had been resurfaced after being melted by meteorite impacts.
The moon is thought to have formed from debris ejected by a giant impact between Earth and a smaller body between 10 and million years after the formation of the solar system, 4.
Apollo 17 sample helps date Moon
But because of a twist of fate, it isn’t quite enough to solve a puzzle that has annoyed lunar and planetary scientists alike for more than two decades. That puzzle has to do with calculating how old different areas of planetary or lunar surfaces are. The older a patch of such an object is, the more it has been banged up by pieces of rock flying through space. Scientists can’t make such connections in Earth’s active crust.
A tiny grain of the mineral zircon in a rock brought back by astronauts is older than any yet found on Earth.
As noted above, the lunar regolith comprises rock fragments in a continuous distribution of particle sizes. It includes a fine fraction—dirtlike in character—that, for convenience, is called soil. The term, however, does not imply a biological contribution to its origin as it does on Earth. Almost all the rocks at the lunar surface are igneous —they formed from the cooling of lava. The two most common kinds are basalts and anorthosites. The lunar basalts, relatively rich in iron and many also in titanium, are found in the maria.
In the highlands the rocks are largely anorthosites, which are relatively rich in aluminum, calcium, and silicon. Some of the rocks in both the maria and the highlands are breccia s; i. The physical compositions of lunar breccias range from broken and shock-altered fragments, called clasts, to a matrix of completely impact-melted material that has lost its original mineral character. The repeated impact history of a particular rock can result in a breccia welded either into a strong, coherent mass or into a weak, crumbly mixture in which the matrix consists of poorly aggregated or metamorphosed fragments.
Massive bedrock—that is, bedrock not excavated by natural processes—is absent from the lunar samples so far collected. Lunar soils are derived from lunar rocks, but they have a distinctive character. As the frequency of large impacts decreased, the gardening depth became shallower. It is estimated that the top centimetre of the surface at a particular site presently has a 50 percent chance of being turned over every million years, while during the same period the top millimetre is turned over a few dozen times and the outermost tenth of a millimetre is gardened hundreds of times.
How Apollo moon rocks reveal the epic history of the cosmos
Written by Marc Norman Lunar and Planetary Institute and Australian National University A northosites, rocks composed almost entirely of plagioclase feldspar, are the oldest rocks on the Moon. They appear to have formed when feldspar crystallized and floated to the top of a global magma ocean that surrounded the Moon soon after it formed. Not all ages determined for anorthosites, however, are as old as we expected–one appeared to be only 4. While 4.
The table above includes the main isotopes used for age studies. Dating of meteorites, Moon rocks. Modeling the age of the Earth.
Like Earth and the rest of the solar system , the moon has been around for roughly 4. But try to narrow down the planets age any more than that, and scientists have a hard time agreeing. Is our moon an ” old moon ” that formed 30 million years after the solar system took shape, or a ” young moon ” that formed million years later? In a new study published July 29 in the journal Nature Geoscience , scientists describe fresh evidence that our moon is apparently on the older side.
By analyzing the ratios of rare radioactive elements in a sampling of moon rocks collected during the Apollo missions, scientists from Germany narrowed the date of the moon’s formation down to about 50 million years after the birth of our solar system — million years earlier than many studies estimate. This is helpful information if, say, you want to buy the moon a cake with the appropriate number of birthday candles — or, as the study authors wrote, if you want to better constrain the dates for when the Earth was born.
That’s because the moon likely formed after a rogue, Mars-sized planet collided with the young Earth in the early days of the solar system. This theory explains why the Earth and the moon have a nearly identical chemical composition. It’s possible, for example, that when that rogue impactor smashed into our young planet, it picked up some rare elements from Earth that are unlikely to have come from elsewhere in the solar system.
By studying the decay of some of the radioactive elements in modern moon rocks, the German researchers attempted to constrain the dates of the big impact and the formation of the moon. The team was curious about two rare isotopes different versions of elements in particular — hafnium and the isotope it eventually turns into after eons of radioactive decay, tungsten The relative abundance of these elements can serve as a kind of cosmic clock, the researchers wrote, as halfnium has a half-life of about 9 million years meaning that half of a given quantity of the element would have decayed into something else after that time.
As the researchers expected, the Apollo moon-rock samples proved more abundant in tungsten than they did in similar rocks from Earth — suggesting that the moon had indeed once been rich in hafnium
Fresh look at Apollo Moon rocks reveals Solar System secrets
How do we know the age of the surfaces we see on planets and moons? If a world has a surface as opposed to being mostly gas and liquid , astronomers have developed some techniques for estimating how long ago that surface solidified. Note that the age of these surfaces is not necessarily the age of the planet as a whole. On geologically active objects including Earth , vast outpourings of molten rock or the erosive effects of water and ice, which we call planet weathering, have erased evidence of earlier epochs and present us with only a relatively young surface for investigation.
Dating of basaltic fragments returned from the Moon also showed that a A total of ∼ kg of rock and soil samples were brought back to the.
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